The endometrium is a mucosa of uterus which is continuously remodeled during the menstrual cycle. Its primary function is to create the optimum environment for implantation of the blastocyst after fertilization. It is sensitive to hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Before puberty the correct thickness is from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. It is important that the uterus does not have a submucosa tissue - muscle membrane connects to the mucous membrane directly.


a) monolayer cylindrical epithelium (also includes uterine glands);

b) stroma (or lamina properthat includes connective tissue and vessels).

Division of the stromal layer

a) functional (dense, spongy - peels off in the final luteal phase);

b) basal (regenerating - a building block to reproduce functional layer).

The variability of the endometrium according to menstrual cycle phase - during the follicular phase, estrogen concentration constantly increases, which stimulates the development of ducts glands, accumulation of glycogen and angiogenesis (the formation of spiral arteries). Endometrium is thickening, epithelium and glands are recreated. At the end, of the follicular phase corpus luteum secretes progesterone (the entrance to the luteal phase). Glands are still expanding and extending, also receive a rich vascularization from the spiral arteries. During this phase, stromal cells receive more glycogen, enzymes, lipids.

There is a variety of layers (compacted - decidual cells of the epithelium, spongy - ductus glands). After fertilization, progesterone concentration increases - it prepares the endometrium for implantation of the embryo. When there is no fertilization, corpus luteum dies and progesterone concentration decreases. It makes sudden ischemia, and later vasodilatation, which burst and pour blood on the outside. This leads to scaling of functional layer of the mucosa (menstrual period).


The endometrium affects many types of diseases, the most popular are:

a) cancer of the uterus (closely associated with hormonal balance),

b) hyperplasia of the endometrium (endometrial hyperplasia with atypia or without atypia);

c) endometriosis (the presence of endometrial lesions outside the uterine cavity).


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Excessive Proliferation of the Cells of...

Mounir El-Hao

Video presents a typical case of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium called endometrial hyperplasia.

views: 4505 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Excision of Polyps

Paul P.G

Removal of endometrial polyp is performed by hysteroscopy.

views: 13213 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Excision of Endometrium

Paul P.G

Because of excessive uterine bleeding the endometrium is hysteroscopically removed.

views: 4576 comments: 0

Excision of Leiomyomas - Separation From...

Mounir El-Hao

This video presents a procedure of myomectomy. tumor has been removed after a separation from endometrium.

views: 4901 comments: 0

Excision of Leiomyomas

Mounir El-Hao

This video shows stages of procedure of myomectomy.

views: 5218 comments: 0

Sticking Walls of Endometrium as a Result...

Mounir El-Hao

In this presentation you can observe how to treat for endometrial wall stickness by hysteroscopy.

views: 2164 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic biopsy and endometrial vaporization

Marcos Lyra

The video presents hysteroscopy of endometrial biopsy and posterior vaporization with the use of electrode Spring Versapoint. The procedure is recommended for abnormal endometrial bleeding in uterus smaller...

views: 6034 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation and partial...

Marcos Lyra

The video presents endometrial ablation and partial removal of myometrium in patient with adenomyosis.

views: 5648 comments: 0

Histeroscopic resection of adenomyosis

Marcos Lyra

The video presents a new treatment of adenomyosis with deep resection through the transmyometrial space.

views: 2425 comments: 0

Endometrial ablation with hystero-resector

Marcos Lyra

The video presents endometrial ablation with the use of a new endometrial hystero-resector which does not need cervix dilatation.

views: 3284 comments: 0

Adenomyosis - endometrial ablation

Marcos Lyra

The video presents treatment of deep adenomyosis with endometrial ablation.

views: 2435 comments: 0

Surgery of Endometriosis - Laparoscopic...

Sevellaraja Supermaniam

Laparoscopic view on endometriosis followed by surgery.

views: 11060 comments: 0

Excision of Rectovaginal Endometriotic Nodule...

Sevellaraja Supermaniam

Excision of rectovaginal endometriotic nodule is shown in this video. It includes the complications associated with this kind of surgery.

views: 4510 comments: 0

Treatment for Severe Endometriosis - Total...

Sevellaraja Supermaniam

Total laparoscopic hysterectomy for severe endometriosis with dissection of the uterine arteries and the ureters are presented.

views: 4243 comments: 2

Endometriosis - Histopathology of ovary

Washington Deceit

In this video the author presents endometriosis in histopathological image of ovary.

views: 7925 comments: 0



In this video you can see endometrium analysed under the microscope.

views: 2230 comments: 0

Endometrium - Senile Atrophy

Washington Deceit

What is the normal thickness of the endometrium, in mm. during an endometrial monthly cycle? What is an average thickness of an endometrium in atrophy, in mm.? Are actual endometrial glands sparse here?...

views: 2594 comments: 0

Endometrium - Hyperplasia

Washington Deceit

What is hyperplasia defined as anywhere in the body? Are almost all the glands here at least separated from other glands by at least a small amount of connective tissue, i.e., stroma? Most hyperplasias...

views: 2119 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Endometrial Ablation

Nabil Moulay

This video presents hysteroscopic endometrial ablation.

views: 3225 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Treatment Of Intr Uterine...

Nabil Moulay

The author of this video presents hysteroscopic treatment of intr uterine endometrial polyp.

views: 3593 comments: 0

New Resection Master Systeme And Endometrial...

Nabil Moulay

Author presents new resection master systeme and endometrial polyp.

views: 3330 comments: 0

New Resection Master Systeme And Endometrial...

Nabil Moulay

This video presents new resection master systeme and endometrial ablation.

views: 2084 comments: 0