A direct inguinal hernia develops medial to the internal inguinal ring. The posterior wall weakens as the transversalis fascia thins, and a bulge results. These hernias usually contain preperitoneal fat...
After the ports have been inserted, the patient is usually placed in a steep reverse Trendelenburg position. A 10-mm 30° angled camera is used.
The initial approach involves dividing the left phrenoesophageal...
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