The endometrium is a mucosa of uterus which is continuously remodeled during the menstrual cycle. Its primary function is to create the optimum environment for implantation of the blastocyst after fertilization. It is sensitive to hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Before puberty the correct thickness is from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. It is important that the uterus does not have a submucosa tissue - muscle membrane connects to the mucous membrane directly.


a) monolayer cylindrical epithelium (also includes uterine glands);

b) stroma (or lamina properthat includes connective tissue and vessels).

Division of the stromal layer

a) functional (dense, spongy - peels off in the final luteal phase);

b) basal (regenerating - a building block to reproduce functional layer).

The variability of the endometrium according to menstrual cycle phase - during the follicular phase, estrogen concentration constantly increases, which stimulates the development of ducts glands, accumulation of glycogen and angiogenesis (the formation of spiral arteries). Endometrium is thickening, epithelium and glands are recreated. At the end, of the follicular phase corpus luteum secretes progesterone (the entrance to the luteal phase). Glands are still expanding and extending, also receive a rich vascularization from the spiral arteries. During this phase, stromal cells receive more glycogen, enzymes, lipids.

There is a variety of layers (compacted - decidual cells of the epithelium, spongy - ductus glands). After fertilization, progesterone concentration increases - it prepares the endometrium for implantation of the embryo. When there is no fertilization, corpus luteum dies and progesterone concentration decreases. It makes sudden ischemia, and later vasodilatation, which burst and pour blood on the outside. This leads to scaling of functional layer of the mucosa (menstrual period).


The endometrium affects many types of diseases, the most popular are:

a) cancer of the uterus (closely associated with hormonal balance),

b) hyperplasia of the endometrium (endometrial hyperplasia with atypia or without atypia);

c) endometriosis (the presence of endometrial lesions outside the uterine cavity).


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New Resection Master Systeme And Endometrial...

Moulay Nabil

This video presents new resection master systeme and endometrial ablation.

views: 1243 comments: 0

New Resection Master Systeme And Endometrial...

Moulay Nabil

Author presents new resection master systeme and endometrial polyp.

views: 2179 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Treatment Of Intr Uterine...

Moulay Nabil

The author of this video presents hysteroscopic treatment of intr uterine endometrial polyp.

views: 2579 comments: 0

Hysteroscopic Endometrial Ablation

Moulay Nabil

This video presents hysteroscopic endometrial ablation.

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Endometrium - Hyperplasia

Washington Deceit

What is hyperplasia defined as anywhere in the body? Are almost all the glands here at least separated from other glands by at least a small amount of connective tissue, i.e., stroma? Most hyperplasias...

views: 1205 comments: 0

Endometrium - Senile Atrophy

Washington Deceit

What is the normal thickness of the endometrium, in mm. during an endometrial monthly cycle? What is an average thickness of an endometrium in atrophy, in mm.? Are actual endometrial glands sparse here?...

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In this video you can see endometrium analysed under the microscope.

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Endometriosis - Histopathology of ovary

Washington Deceit

In this video the author presents endometriosis in histopathological image of ovary.

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Treatment for Severe Endometriosis - Total...

Sevellaraja Supermaniam

Total laparoscopic hysterectomy for severe endometriosis with dissection of the uterine arteries and the ureters are presented.

views: 2970 comments: 2

Excision of Rectovaginal Endometriotic Nodule...

Sevellaraja Supermaniam

Excision of rectovaginal endometriotic nodule is shown in this video. It includes the complications associated with this kind of surgery.

views: 3339 comments: 0