Thrombosis

Thrombosis




Deep vein thrombosis is a disease that consists in formation of blood thromboses in deep veins of the lower limb (located under the deep fascia), rarely applies to the upper limbs. It is a common disease, often leading to serious complications (separation of the thrombus, pulmonary embolism).


Reasons



Impact on disease development is Virchow triad- the presence of three factors:

• disturbances in blood flow (e.g. immobilization, compression of veins);

• changes in the blood (excessive clotting conditions);

• changes in the vascular endothelium.

Less common causes include vascular catheter in a vein, venous pressure from the outside by swollen lymph nodes (axillary vein, subclavian vein), tumor, fracture of the clavicle, considerable effort (pressure exerted between the collar bone and muscle subclavicle). Predispose to disease conditions such as prolonged immobilization, condition after surgery, infection, sepsis, pregnancy, age over 40 years of age, previous thrombosis, injuries of the pelvis and lower limbs, dehydration, oral contraceptives, obesity, genetic disorders (thrombophilias) , antiphospholipid syndrome.


Symptoms



The course of the disease is usually silent (there is no apparent symptoms), other symptoms:

• painful palpation of the limb;

• excessive heat, the difference in uciepleniu limbs;

• swelling;

• redness of the skin.


Characteristic of the disease is Homans symptom - painful calf and the knee during the dorsal flexion of the foot, while keeping
the knee straightened.


Diagnostics



The basic element of diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis is a medical history and physical examination, which may be supplemented by the following procedure:

• laboratory tests (D-dimer, coagulation test);

• doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs;

• venography.


Treatment



Is extremely important, because its purpose is to prevent potential complications (pulmonary embolism - a dangerous and potentially fatal disease.) The therapy uses a compression therapy (compression tights), low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, unfractionated heparin, oral anticoagulants. It is important to prevention before potential exposure to risk factors (e.g. pre-operative).

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