A cyst is a pathological cavity in the body (pathomorphological it is regressive changes) which is filled with liquid, semi-solid or solid (different cohesion and composition) – it is clear, amber, brown, exfoliated epithelial mass or skin appendages. The cause of these features in the soft tissues may be a malformations (congenital), obstruction the glandular ducts or organ (congestive cysts) or other (idiopathic, after-infectious, etc.). It can be formed in the course of some diseases (polycystic ovary syndrome, polycystic renal disease). Diagnosis is based on the clinical picture, which is confirmed by radiological examinations (e.g. renal ultrasonography is the gold standard for detection renal cystic) and microscopic examination (biopsy, discharge examination). In rare cases, cysts can undergo malignant transformation, so every change of this type must be subjected to regular observation.


a) cysts - lined by epithelium (e.g. renal cysts);

b) pseudocysts - without epithelial lining (e.g. cysts in the pancreas in cystic fibrosis or parasitic cysts);

c) haemorrhagic - ovarian follicle that has not ruptured.

Another division based on pathogenesis:

a) congenital

b) secondary (e.g. hepatic cysts).


The method of choice in the case of asymptomatic cysts and without risks is observation of changes. In other cases, the mainstay of treatment is surgical removal of the pathological change. Treatment may be one or two stages. In the first case, all changes are removed during one procedure; in two stages - at first, requires decompression of the contents and then remove it. It is total removal of the capsule because some cysts have a tendency to regrowth.

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