Radiotherapy is one of three basic methods used in the treatment of cancer. It involves the use of ionizing radiation to destroy abnormal cells. Treatment plans are properly trained physician (specialist in radiation oncology).

Mechanism of action

Ionizing radiation causes the excitation cascade (water radiolysis, free radicals), which destroys the cell (the most sensitive cells are rapidly dividing).

There are several types of radiation used in radiotherapy:

A. radiation indirectly ionizing (X-rays, gamma rays),

B. molecular radiation:
a directly ionizing (electron, proton, alpha particle and heavy ions),
b indirectly ionizing (neutrons - currently at the research stage).

Division of radiotherapy

There are several divisions of radiotherapy, depending on:

A. therapeutic aims:

a) radical radiotherapy - the aim is destruction of the tumor, radiotherapy is subjected tumor, surrounding tissue and lymph nodes.

b) palliative radiotherapy - used to relieve cancer pain in advanced disease (e.g. bone metastases).

c) radiation of symptoms - the target is assumed to improve the quality of life of the patient by the partial restoration of function (e.g. a decrease in tumor size in cancer of the esophagus).

B. method of irradiation:

a) brachytherapy - the oldest of healing methods, involves placing a radioactive isotope in the tumor area, uses elements such as iridium, cesium, tantalum, iodine, radium, gold, brachytherapy alone may be divided into several subtypes:

• intratissue brachytherapy (source placed in the tumor),

• intracavity brachytherapy (source of natural openings in the body),

• surface brachytherapy (source placed on the skin on the skin to treat changes in surface water),

• intravascular brachytherapy (the source of the blood vessels - preventing restenosis)

• intraoperative brachytherapy.

b) teleradiotherapy - involves the use of special equipment (linear accelerators) to irradiation changes, new techniques (IMRT, IGRT, RapidArc, CyberKnife) allow for improved treatment results and more accurate administration of the required dose of radiation.

Adenocarcinoma adenoma anatomy bleeding cancer colon colonoscopy duodenum echocardiography emr endoscopy ent images esophagus for dental students for dentists gastroscopy GIST hernia Histopathology hysterectomy laparoscopy polyp polypectomy rectum robotic surgery stomach surgical video case TUMOR ulcer varices
Number of results
Sort by

Urinary Diversion on Post-Radiotherapy Patient

views: 996 comments: 0

This surgery was executed using the robotic platform on Santa Izabel Hospital Salvador. The ''Insituto Baiano de Cirurgia Robótica'' is the pioneer of robotic surgery in Bahia and was created to offer...

Lung Cancer (Part 2) - Treatment Updates

Specialty:  Clinical Oncology
views: 1577 comments: 0

There is tremendous progress in lung cancer treatment including personalised treatment options. The targeted therapy uses a specific inhibitor against specific cancer genes, which provides higher response...

Complex Uniportal VATS Left Upper Sleeve Reconstruction...

views: 558 comments: 0

In this video we show a video in a patient who received induction treatment for lung cancer centrally located and with endobronchial tumor. An uniportal VATS was performed through a 4 cm incision and...

Radiation Therapy In Prostate Cancer: What’s...

views: 487 comments: 0

Christina E. Henson, MD, describes how recent trial-based research has established new standards in prostate cancer radiotherapy. She discusses several modes of therapy, including hypofractionation, metastasis-directed...

Precision Radiation Therapy: Low- to Intermediate-Risk...

views: 384 comments: 0

Michael J. Zelefsky, MD, discusses the need for advances in molecular imaging and radiomics and for integrating these techniques with precision radiation therapy in order to improve selective dose delivery...

Prostate Cancer Radiation Treatment Related Urethral...

views: 3805 comments: 0

The video demonstrates the use of gracilis muscle flap in posterior urethroplasty to treat radiation related urethral strictures from the treatment of prostate cancer. Video by Dr. Jeremy Myers, from...

Rescue Surgery after High Doses of Chemo-radiotherapy...

views: 2532 comments: 0

Challenging uniportal VATS right upper lobectomy. The patient was considered non surgical in other center and treated with high doses of chemo-radiotherapy. One year and a half later, the hilar tumor...

Radiation Telangectasia in Rectum After Irradiation...

views: 6814 comments: 0

Video shows a case of patient after irradiation for prostate cancer who developed rectal bleeding. APC coagulation was performed to small areas of angioectasias superficially and focally.

Left Intrapericardic Pneumonectomy by Single-port...

views: 6359 comments: 0

Hilar carcinoma treated with chemotherapy and high doses of radiotherapy. The patient was proposed for left pneumonectomy by uniportal VATS. Video by Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, MD.

Radiation Induced Vesicovaginal Fistula - Treatment

European Urology

Specialty:  Urology
views: 5348 comments: 0

This material demonstrates a management of radiation induced vesicovaginal fistula. Pelvic radiation used for the treatment of malignant diseases is the primary cause of delayed vesicovaginal fistula....

Number of results
Sort by