ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy




This is a development of the fetus outside the uterine cavity and may include different places in the body (eg, ovarian). Other potential sites for embryo implantation are ovary, peritoneal cavity and organs contained in it, cervix. Most concerns young women. Possible causes are associated with abnormalities around fallopian tubes (adhesions around folds of the mucous membrane, mucosal defects after blennorrheal infection, tubal wall recesses, the growth of endometrial implants, tubal motility disorder, the presence of intra uterine device during pregnancy).

The prognosis is good for the mother, the fetus in most cases is not capable of survival outside the woman's body. Termination of pregnancy followed by abortion or tubal rupture. Factors predisposing to the disease:

• inflammation of pelvic organs;

• tubal and ovarian surgery;

• sexually transmitted diseases (especially chlamydia and
gonorrhea);

• intrauterine devices;

• techniques of assisted reproduction


Types



Depending on location and potential pathogenesis, we distinguish several types of diseases:

a) tubal pregnancy - the fetus develops in the fallopian tube;

b) abdominal pregnancy - can affect every organ in the
peritoneal cavity;

c) cervical pregnancy - a potentially life-threatening (risk of major bleeding);

d) ovarian pregnancy - occurs most often between 35 and 40 years of age.


Symptoms



Depending on the severity of ectopic pregnancy:

a) lack of clinical symptoms and the inability to distinguish
ectopic pregnancy from normal;

b) stage of bleeding and spotting (death of the embryo);

c) stage of peritoneal irritation (pain, fainting, bloody spitting );

d) stage of ruptures (in the case of fallopian tube) - symptoms of shock.


Diagnosis



This is a multistep process and it includes:

a) clinical history;

b) the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (its growth usually suggests the presence of a developing fetus);

c) in special cases, exploratory laparoscopy was performed.


Treatment


Depending on the particular clinical situation there are three possible procedures - observation, pharmacotherapy of methotrexate, surgical treatment (laparotomy - after opening the abdominal cavity following removal of the affected fallopian tube).

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