It is a group of ophthalmic disorders consisting in a slow and progressive optic neuropathy of optic nerve and the retinal ganglion cells failure. The pathogenesis of this disease depends on the type of glaucoma - most frequently it leads to permanent damage of nerve cells by increased intraocular pressure. This is caused by increasing the amount of aqueous humor (an imbalance in the production-adsorption). Blocking outflow of aqueous humor causes a significant increase in intraocular pressure and consequently to optic nerve damage (mechanical compression). Other causes of glaucoma may include atherosclerosis vessel walls that supplying optic nerve - chronic ischemia of neurons leads to their gradual failure and in the the last step to blindness. Factors predisposing to disease: the existence of a family, black race, age over 35 years old, high or low blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, migraine, stress, sleep apnea, increased intraocular pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiovascular disorders, retinopathy, trauma.

Types - etiology

a) glaucoma with normal intraocular pressure - glaucoma, which is caused by vascular changes, intraocular pressure does not deviate from the norm;

b) secondary glaucoma - caused by others causes; it is created within the pathological eye;

c) glaucoma with open angle glaucoma (glaucoma simple) - symptoms are often minimal or absent, it is open angle glaucoma (blockage is only the microstructure), and the process lasts for years;

d) angle-closure glaucoma (acute glaucoma) - after a violent attack of closure of the outflow of aqueous humor, often accompanied by severe pain and disorders vision correctness;
e) pigmentary glaucoma - is blockage drainage holes of aqueous humor pigment granules. They are created when the iris too much comes close to the lens (the attack may lead to physical exercise).


Loss of peripheral vision, occasional headaches, blindness, severe eye pain, nausea, vomiting.


a) pharmacotherapy (mainly used for treatment glaucoma with open angle glaucoma) - parasympathomimetic drugs (e.g. pilocarpine), β-blockers (eg. timolol), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (eg. acetazolamide), α2-agonists, prostaglandin analogs;

b) laser operation - trabeculoplasty and irydotomia;

c) surgery - trabeculectomy, irydectomy, scleroiridectomy,
cycleodiathermy, cycleocryopexiogoniotomy, photocoagulation.

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Glaucoma Diagnostics: 2020 and Beyond

Specialty:  Ophthalmology
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70-minute session from the 2020 COS Annual Meeting featuring a keynote lecture from Dr. Balwantray Chauhan, paper presentations including the Second Prize COS Awards of Excellence in Ophthalmic Research...

Pathologies In Eyes Related To Age

Specialty:  Geriatrics
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In the video there are presented various conditions related with eyes in the elderly. At the beginning there is a short review of eye anatomy. In the main part of the presentation speaker explains definitions...

Angle Closure In Pediatric Patient: Lensectomy,...

Specialty:  Ophthalmology
views: 1460 comments: 0

15yo one-eye patient with small anterior segment, history of ROP, referred to me for advanced chronic angle closure glaucoma, 360 degrees of PAS with IOP 35mmHg on maximum meds and oral Diamox. Biometry:...

Secondary Lens Implantation with Additional Retinal...

views: 2283 comments: 0

Video case: secondary lens implantation in both eyes. In one eye this procedure was combined with retinal attachment. A message to take: don't ever make implantation of artificial lens if remnants of...


views: 3055 comments: 0

This device opens the angle and glaucoma is cured.

DSAEK & Iris Suture

views: 3453 comments: 0

Combined anterior segment surgery in a patient with scleral fixation IOL and Glaucoma due to extensive anterior synechia and Pseudophakic Bullous Keratopathy. Video by Saverio Luccarelli.

ExPRESS Miniature Glaucoma Device

Specialty:  Ophthalmology
views: 3975 comments: 0

This is best considered a modified trabeculectomy operation. Instead of making a small hole a miniature stainless steel shunt (about the size of a grain of rice) is implanted under the ‘trapdoor’ created...

Fugo Blade for Glaucoma Surgery

views: 2824 comments: 0

A simple description of Fugo plasma blade and how it can be used to make filtration tracks for glaucoma. Also how important are the lymphatics for success of glaucoma surgery.

Microtrack Filtration for Glaucoma

views: 2257 comments: 0

Microtrack filtration for glaucoma, my latest movie. There is slight variation - mixing 200 micron Fugo blade tip and 100 micron tip. The surgery is very easy, atraumatic and offers high rate of success.

Express Technique for Shunt Device

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Simplified technique to implant Shunt Device.