gastric ulcer

Gastric ulcer




Gastric ulcer disease is characterized by defects in the mucosa of gastric or duodenum, due to various reasons. There is equally common in both sexes. It is the most common diseases of the digestive tract.


Symptoms



Characteristic is the presence of postprandial epigastric pain (1-3 hours after food consumption). Other symptoms that may indicate the presence of gastric ulcer are:

• heartburn

• vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite

• hiccups

• belching, acidity in the mouth

• constipation and diarrhea

• weight loss

• anemia (bleeding).

Another aspect is the presence of ulcer perforation (life threatening) - in the stomach is formed a hole which the feed passes into the peritoneal cavity, and consequently formed peritonitis. Patients describe the symptoms as "pain jab with a knife", the belly is tense, it can be bloody vomiting. Disorders may also develop around pylorus - the healing process causes the production of connective tissue with subsequent stenosis and associated symptoms.

Causes



Peptic ulcer disease has a complex etiology, primarily - Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic use of NSAIDs. Less common causes include genetic factors (blood group 0 and other), cigarette smoking, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrin secreting tumor), glucocorticoid therapy, hyperparathyroidism, carcinoid syndrome, etc.


Diagnostics



The gold standard for confirming the presence of changes as ulcers and erosions is endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It also allows get the slices for histopathological examination (to exclude possible changes of cancer) and to examine the material for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori.


Treatment



Once used only surgical treatment, now the first line treatment is the eradication of H. pylori according to existing procedures (proton pump inhibitor plus two of the three antibiotics: amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole). Can be used symptomatically proton pump inhibitors (esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole), H2 blockers (cimetidine, famotidine, ranitidine), protective agents (ventrisol), M1-blocker (pirenzepine), prostaglandin analogues (misoprostol). In exceptional cases - surgical treatment.

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