It is retreating of diet consumed from stomach to esophagus due to leakage or insufficiency of the lower esophageal sphincter. Risk factors: hiatal hernia, obesity, low voltage of lower esophageal sphincter, fatty foods, wine, spicy spices, sudden changes in body position, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The diagnosis for this disease: contrast X-ray, upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, pH-metry, manometry, omeprazole test . Untreated may lead to series of severe complications (gastrointestinal bleeding, adenocarcinoma).


a) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux) - a group of clinical symptoms and / or changes in the esophageal mucosa which are caused by recurrent episodes of getting the gastric contents into the esophagus (endoscopic should be confirmed);

b) NERD (non erosive reflux disease) - 24 h pH-metry shows regurgitation into the esophagus, but there are no visible symptoms in endoscopy.
Symptoms - esophageal symptoms (heartburn, retrosternal pain), associated with organ failure (esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma) and others (cough, hoarseness, asthma, dental caries, chronic laryngitis). Quality of life is reduced due to complaints.


Is several stages (depending on the severity of symptoms):

a) modification of lifestyle - avoiding stimulants (coffee, alcohol), reduction of body weight, regular consumption of meals;

b) pharmacotherapy - used proton pump inhibitors, antacids;

c) the operation - usually performed by laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

Other types of reflux

a) bile reflux into the stomach (pyloric sphincter insufficiency); ulcers may occur;

b) vesico-ureteral reflux - here is the reverse flow of urine from the bladder and ureters to the kidneys, can lead to serious complications;

c) reflux of duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux - regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach and esophagus;
d) laryngo-pharyngeal reflux - stomach contents move to the larynx, pharynx, sinuses, oral cavity, nasopharynx, middle ear.

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Dor Fundoplication in Achalasia

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Surgical video case: since reflux of gastric contents into the aperistaltic esophagus can cause esophagitis, peptic strictures, Barrett's esophagus, and even esophageal carcinoma, the addition of a partial...

How to Perform a Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

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The sleeve gastrectomy has become increasingly common in the last few years, yet it is still not technically standardized. Controversy exists over bougie size and pouch calibration, extent of antral resection,...

Nissen Fundoplication

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Nissen fundoplication was performed on the patient who had been experiencing reflux symptoms for a long time. After the operation, the patient's symptoms completely regressed.

Redo Nissen After Valve Opening

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Surgical video: here is the case of a patient who presented a hiatal hernia repair and a Nissen fundoplication a year ago. The hiatal closure was previously reinforced with a slowly resorbable mesh. The...

Mini Gastric Bypass + Nissen Fundoplication +...

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Surgical video case: 37-year-old male patient, BMI of 35.The patient applied with complaints of overweight and severe reflux. Mini gastric bypass, hiatus hernia repair and Nissen fundoplication procedures...

TOUPET Type Posterior Anti Reflux Valve

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Hiatal hernia - gastroesophageal reflux. TOUPET type anti-reflux valve - laparoscopic treatment.

Laparoscopic Fundoplication

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This Video Demonstrates Laparoscopic Fundoplication performed at World Laparoscopy Hospital, Gurgaon. During fundoplication surgery, the upper curve of the stomach (the fundus) is wrapped around the esophagus...

Vesicoscopic Reimplant in Reflux with Diverticulum

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This is a case scenario where there is a child with Gr 5 Reflux with paraureteric diverticulum. He underwent a vesicoscopic excision of diverticulum with cohens reimplantation.

Just One Step -Tunneling in Vesicoscopic Reimplantation

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Small video demonstrating the crucial step of creating a submucosal tunnel during vesicoscopic reimplantation. This is being done in a 3 ys old child who had a previous deflux inj

Port Site Closure after Vesicoscopic Reimplantation

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The video shows port site closure after vesicoscopic reimplantation.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) - CRASH!...

Specialty:  Gastroenterology
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The video contains information about gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). For just $1/month, you can help keep these videos free! Subscribe to my Patreon at

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Dysphagia

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Today I have uploaded a common GI problem in the society- GERD • GERD is retrograde flow of stomach contents into esophagus • GERD cause dysphagia only if it is complicated with a stricture formation...

LINX in GERD. The Evolution of the Technique....

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Presented by Rebeca V. Dominguez at the "SS37: Revisional Bariatrics/Foregut Video Session" session during the SAGES 2019 Annual Meeting in Baltimore, MD on Saturday, April 6, 2019. This was...

Endoscopic Resection - Discussion: ESD or CAP...

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This video presents a case of a 76 years old male, who has a epigastric pain with reflux. Gastroscopy showed a Barrett’s esophagus C3M5 with a nodule of 1 cm. Biosy of the nodule showed in situ...

Vesico - Ureteric Reflux

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VUR is retrograde flow of urine from urinary bladder into ureter. Almost 30 to 50% of children with UTI will be having some underlying problem especially Vesico-ureteric reflux. In this episode, I discussed...

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