Cardiomyopathy Overview - Types (Dilated, Hypertrophic, Restrictive), Pathophysiology and Treatment

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"Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the heart muscle tissue. Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that often lead to progressive heart failure with significant morbidity and mortality. There are many types of cardiomyopathies but the can be neatly divided into 5 types based on its anatomy and physiology:

1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as the name suggests is dilation of the ventricles. Dilated ventricles make the cardiac muscle cells weak and so impair cardiac contractility and systolic

2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is where the ventricles have hypertrophied. Hypertrophy typically involves the interventricular septum. This results in filling issues in the ventricles and so causes diastolic dysfunction. It is also a cause of sudden cardiac death in young people.

3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) the heart muscle become stiff and not elastic. They are characterised as infiltrative, non infiltrative and storage diseases causing the restriction. Restriction of ventricles mean the sarcomeres do not lengthen effectively leading to diastolic impairment and reduced stroke volume. The stiff ventricles causes a build up of pressure in the atria leading to dilated atria.

4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a problem usually of the right ventricles caused my mutation in the desmosomes the things that hold cardiac muscle cells together. Mutation here results in ventricular arrhythmias and possible sudden cardiac death.

5. Unclassified cardiomyopathies such as peripartum cardiomyopathy, tachyarrhythmia induced cardiomyopathy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy."

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tags: cardiomyopathy Cardiology physiology cardiac heart


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