Bronchiolitis (Causes, Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms, Treatment)

3 years ago

Case description

Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles and is often caused by a viral infection notably Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Bronchiolitis is the most common respiratory tract infection of neonates and is usually self-limiting. A major source of confusion of treatment is differentiating a viral bronchiolitis to asthma. In summary bronchiolitis is usually seen in infants less then 2yo and asthma is seen in older children.

The main causative agents is the Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Other causes include rhinovirus and parainfluenza.

In bronchiolitis the changes include narrowing of the airways due to mucus hypersecretion, cell wall thickening and smooth muscle contraction. These findings are also seen in patient who have asthma. And in infants around 2yo bronchiolitis can often be mistaken as asthma. Bronchiolitis also causes air trapping where oxygen can be inhaled but gets trapped in the lower respiratory tract due to surrounding inflammation. This causes difficult breathing for the infant."

tags: bronchiolitis inflammation bronchioles viral infection respiratory tract neonates Respiratory Syncytial Virus

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