Hyponatraemia (Hyponatremia) - Classification, Causes, Pathophysiology, Treatment

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specialty:
Cardiology

Case description

Hyponatraemia is commonly defined as a serum sodium concentration below 130 mmol/L. It affects anywhere from 1-15% of hospital patients. Most cases require no treatment however with acute causes of hyponatraemia the effects can be life threatening. Sodium plays a critical role in the body. Hyponatraemia is easily classified according to volume status: Hypervolemia. Normovolemia and Hypovolemia. Hypervolaemia hyponatraemia is where someone with low serum sodium is fluid overloaded they have peripheral oedema or fluid in their lungs. Euvolemic hyponatraemia is someone with low serum sodium but whose fluid status is normal. Hypovolaemic hyponatraemia is someone with low serum sodium who is dehydrated and so they would have a fast heart rate.

tags: Hyponatraemia hyponatremia classification Pathophysiology treatment


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