Halitosis: Mere bad breath or something more?

Woman cleaning teeth with toothbrushHalitosis is the term used to describe unpleasant smell coming out from the mouth. This medical condition applies to 50% – 65% of the world population. Despite the prevalence of the affliction is so high, the problem is ignored and treated as a taboo. In about 90% of cases the source of halitosis is located in the oral cavity. A small portion of the problem is caused by disorders that are beyond oral cavity. There is also the phenomenon of psychogenic halitosis. In a variant called pseudo-halitosis there is no unpleasant smell from the mouth, but the patient is convinced of its existence. Worth of mentioning is also the term of halitophobia, when patient experiences exaggerated fear of this disease. Read full text »

The newest hepatitis C tests may reduce diagnosis in half

iStock_000015704019XSmallAccording to WHO, HCV infection should be diagnosed in 2 steps. The first step is screening and serological test for anti-HCV antibodies. If the result is positive, it is necessary to carry out nucleic acid test for HCV RNA (NAT). It is needed to confirm chronic HCV infection. RNA of virus appears in the plasma 1-2 weeks after infection. RNA level gradually increases, but after some time this level falls and RNA test of HCV could be temporarily negative. HCV antibodies appear in 8-10 weeks after infection.

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Actinomycosis- diagnostic challenge of XXI century

Scientists from all over the world report about cases of actinomycosis, which due to non-specific symptoms and rare occurence are beeing wrongly diagnosed as a neoplasm. Read full text »

Severe form of acne vulgaris – is it helpful in the early diagnosis of endometriosis?

PEndometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease affecting a lot of women. It is defined as a presence of endometrium outside the proper place of occurrence, which is the uterine cavity. It may occur at any age however, it mainly concerns young women in their reproductive period, involving 10 percent of them. Read full text »

Depression – new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment

iStock_000011113599_XXXLargeIt is currently believed that depression may be caused by improper functioning of immune system cells in brain. The scientists from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem claim that treatment of depression may be revolutionized by the use of new psychotropic drugs. The results of the analysis were published in Cell Press in the section Trends in Neurosciences. Read full text »

Sniffling and autism – could it be a new way to diagnose?

iStock_000029477664_FullThe researchers report that people suffering from autism spectrum (ASD) have no natural sniffling habit in response to pleasant stimuli such as perfumes. Children with autism react with sniffing in the same way regardless of whether the odor is pleasant or not. The study results were published on July 2 in the pages of The Cell Press Current Biology. Read full text »

A step ahead in neurology: EDSAP – how to make it before a stroke

cancer cellAccording to the latest data, someone dies because of a stroke every 6 seconds and one in six people will experience it at a certain moment in their lives. In the meantime, the most of these cases will be prevented in the nearest future. In January 2015 a team of 5 engineers from C-Lab (Creativity Lab) constructed a device which will allow to detect the first symptoms of a stroke on the basis of the recording of brain waves. EDAP (Early Detection Sensor & Algorithm Package) is a set of sensors and algorithm of early warning which aim is to reduce stroke prevalence, especially in patients who are at higher risk. Read full text »

The MRI worth more than a thousand words

Arm ache. Close up of businessman hand tired from typingTeam from UC Davis Health System created a protocol allowing acquisition of a wrist motion sequences with use of short MRI scan series – the Active-MRI. The technique, developed by a group of radiologists, medical physicists and orthopaedic surgeons may become a valuable tool in diagnostics of early functional disorders that can underlay further pathologies such as wrist instability. Read full text »

MicroRNAs in cancer therapy and diagnosis

MicroRNAs are proteins non-coding RNA molecules of about 20-24 nucleotides length. Their function is to control the expression of other genes during transcription or posttranscriptionally. Distinct expression of certain classes of microRNAs in various conditions were detected, including certain types of cancer. MicroRNAs class let-7 has a function in many metabolic pathways, and their goal is the inhibition of cell proliferation. They inhibit the growth of tumors. Reduction of miRNA let-7 class in some types of tumors, such as lung cancer and breast cancer, was detected. Another type of miRNAs that can be used in cancer therapy is the miR-34. The use of miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and therapy is promising but requires further study.

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Pittsburgh compound B – the opportunity for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very complicated clinical matter from a practical point of view – certain confirmation of this condition in patients is an autopsy of a central nervous system (CNS). However, lately it is reported that a novel marker Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) used in positron emission tomography (PET) may diagnose AD in patients before decease (1). Read full text »