Diabetes increases the risk of dementia

Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of developing dementia. Such results can be found in the study published on September 20 in Neurology. This is a medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Diabetes is a very common disease and in the light of this news, its control becomes more important than ever.

Type 2 diabetes has become one of the main lifestyle diseases and is one of the most common problems everyday medical practice. Worldwide, in every 10 seconds it is diagnosed in two individuals and one person dies because of its complications. According to the World Health Organization diabetes was detected in 30 million people in 1985, 10 years later in 135 million, and in 2000 – 175 million. It is estimated that in 2030 there will be recorded 366 million patients suffering from diabetes. Without a doubt, we can speak of exponential growth of the new diagnosed diabetes. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is complex and was only partly explained. In the course of this disease the decrease in the production of insulin can be observed, while the target tissues become insulin resistant. At the time of diagnosis, pancreatic beta cells function is usually reduced by approximately 50% compared to the standard, which does not cover the needs of the organism for insulin. It is important that type 2 diabetes affects 90% of obese people, as obesity is closely linked to insulin resistance. Increase in body weight leads to a reduction in the tissue insulin sensitivity. Not only the amount of fat, but also its distribution is very important. Abdomen fat tissue in particular, but also adipose tissue of skeletal muscles and the liver, are crucial to the development of resistance to insulin. Decrease in production of this hormone and sensitivity on its interactions, leads to an increase in the amount of glucose in the blood. Status of chronic hyperglycemia and above all, the toxicity of metabolites of glucose, increases the resistance of the target tissues to insulin and pancreatic beta cells dysfunction, thus enhancing the already existing disorders.

The study published in Neurology enrolled 1,017 people who were age 60 and older. Whole group was qualified to a glucose tolerance test to determine if they had diabetes. Then patients were monitored for 11 years and tested for dementia. During the study, 232 people developed dementia. It turned out that people with diabetes were twice as likely to develop dementia as people with normal blood sugar levels. Of the 150 people with diabetes, 41 developed dementia, compared to 115 of the 559 people without diabetes who developed dementia. The results remained the same after accounting factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking. The risk of dementia was higher not only in diabetic patients, but also in people who had impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, the study found the risk of developing dementia significantly increased when blood sugar was high after a meal. Diabetes under control!

Written by: Karolina Kłoda MD, PhD

1.Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110919163947.htm

Want to know more about diabetes? Watch on medtube.net: Diabetes type 2

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