Vascular Complications in Renal Transplant Recipients – The Experience of One Transplant Centre.

Abstract:
Despite the progress of transplantology, vascular complications in renal transplant recipients remain a serious problem and their frequency in retrospective studies is estimated at 2.1-2.7%. Vascular complications after renal transplantation are classified into three main categories: renal artery or vein stenosis, renal artery or vein thrombosis and arterial damage. Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) occurs in 1-23% of cases and accounts for almost 75% of all post-transplant vascular complications. The frequency of renal artery thrombosis (RAT) depends on the time that has elapsed since transplantation procedure and it is estimated between 0.9% and 3.5%. Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is one of the most dangerous vascular complications that can occur after transplantation, because it leads to the loss of graft in almost all cases. It occurs with a frequency of 0.5% to 6%. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of vascular complications after renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical data of 334 patients, that underwent kidney transplantation at the Department of General and Transplantation Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients with recognition of transplant renal artery stenosis or allograft thrombosis in diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography or computed tomography angiography) were qualified to further analysis. The average age of them was 47.5 years. Stenosis of the artery was the most common complication after kidney transplantation (7.2%). Renal vein stenosis was not observed. The renal artery thrombosis was observed in 1.5% of cases and the frequency of renal vein thrombosis was 1.2%. 27% of cases with vascular complications were ended with the loss of the renal graft.

Authors:
Piotr Kwietniak, Monika Bieniasz, Magdalena Kwapisz, Kinga Grzelak, Sandra Dzwonkowska, Rafal Kieszek

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