FINDRISC scale as a common tool to assess the risk of diabetes type 2

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly with the use of FINDRISC scale. Material and methods: The study involved 200 people. Those participating in the study were given the form representing the scale of developing diabetes risk, based on FINDRISC scale and classified into one of five groups of risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Results: 47% of examined patients are of a moderate, high or very high risk of developing diabetes type 2. There was no significant difference between men and women. The correlation between age and the risk of developing diabetes type 2 appeared insignificant. The correlation between BMI and the risk as well as waist circumference and the risk appeared to be high, positive. Conclusions: FINDRISC scale is a simple tool to rank the risk of developing diabetes in the general popula- tion, among the overweight or obese patients having positive family history of developing diabetes. Read full text »

The Prevalence Of Mycoplasma In Pregnant Women’s Genital Tracts Delivering In TERTIARY Hospital

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum among pregnant women and an attempt to identify risk factors for maternal infection and assessment of the impact of infection on perinatal outcomes. Material and methods: Patients included into the analysis were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 97 (78.9%) women who had not isolated the strains of Mycoplasma, and the second group of 26 (21.1%) women who had isolated a strain of Mycoplasma. Results: Women who had isolated strains of Mycoplasma were significantly younger (p=0.0031), less frequently completed higher education (p=0.0163), less frequently were married (p=0.0061). Women who were not classified with Mycoplasma were more frequently multiparas (p=0.012) and were more likely to have previous caesarean birth (p=0.022). The groups did not differ significantly in terms of gestational age at birth, the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine infection, the percentage of women who gave birth vaginally, the birth weight of newborns and the condition of the newborns after delivery. The neonatal respiratory support type nCPAP was more frequently applied to the babies born to mothers who had isolated Mycoplasma. Conclusions: Based on the survey results and data from the world literature, it can be concluded that women with pre-term labour and PROM should be tested for Mycoplasma colonization and the newborn should be observed primarily in terms of complications caused by respiratory tract. Colonization with Mycoplasma in term pregnancy does not impact significantly maternal and neonatal outcome. Read full text »

Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus type 2 differ from those with diabetes mellitus type 1

Background: Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare perinatal outcomes in type 2 and type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared between 62 pregnant women with type 2 pregesta- tional diabetes mellitus and 448 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes who delivered in the University Hospital of Warsaw from 2000 to 2011. Results: Women with type 2 diabetes were older, more overweight prior to pregnancy (BMI 29.3 vs 24.2 kg/m2, p<0.0001), gained less weight during pregnancy and presented with hypertension during pregnancy. The patients with type 2 diabe- tes exhibited lower 1-hour postprandial glycemia levels (104.7 vs 117.4 mg/dL, p<0.001) in the 3rd trimester and lower mean glycemia levels during labor (89.9 vs 107.8 mg/dL, p<0.001). The durations of the pregnancies of these patients were significantly longer (37.1 vs 36.3 weeks, p<0.05). Neonates of mothers with type 2 diabetes were significantly less likely to exhibit low 1st-minute Apgar scores (3.6% vs 18.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions: Pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus present with more risk factors for metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and obesity and exhibit better metabolic control during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Read full text »

The use of smart glasses in healthcare – review

Aim. Nowadays technical innovations appear rapidly. One of new possibilities is smart glasses – wearable compu- ting devices wore as standard glasses. Although most smart glasses were not initially targeted at healthcare, they have been already implemented in multiple different medical applications across different specialties. In general such devices can be utilized whenever a screen or external monitor is already required. Head mounted displays can be implemented for very basic purposes such as education, simulation, live streaming of visualized data (i.e. vital signs, imaging studies, tests results, etc)., to more interactive functions such as video recording and digital photo documen- tation, for telemedicine, telementoring and many others. Ultimately smart glasses would implement artificial intelligence engines in the daily clinical practice and several other promising application for the future. Digital health is already growing exponentially, and with no doubt, the market for smart glasses in healthcare will grow accordingly in the very near future. The aim of this paper is to analyze current possible applications of smart glasses in patient care as well as the advantages and drawbacks of this kind of devices in everyday clinical practice. Read full text »

Demographic features of type 2 diabetes patients are associated with diabetes control in terms of primary health care

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between selected demographic features of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and glycemia control expressed as the percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the period of publishing the first diabetes treatment guidelines for general practitioners (GPs). Material and method. Medical records of 209 patients with type 2 diabetes (84 men and 125 women) aged from 22 to 87 years (mean age 65.8 years) from two general practitioners’ (GPs) practices in 2009 and 2010 were retrospec- tively assessed. Analysis of HbA1c was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results. In regard to 2010 significantly higher mean percentage of HbA1c was found: in men compared to women (7.9±1.9% vs 7.1±1.1%); in patients <70 years of age compared to ≥70 years of age (7.7±1.8% vs 7.0±0.9%); in the population <70 years of age – in men compared to women (8.2±2.0% vs 7.2±1.3%) and in the group of men <70 years of age compared with ≥70 years of age (8.2±2.0% vs 7.0±1.1%). Among the 66 patients analyzed in both years, lower mean percentage of HbA1c was demonstrated in the group <70 years of age in 2009 compared to 2010 (7.3 ± 1.1% vs 7.8 ± 1.5%). By contrast, regarding 2010 patients <70 years of age had a higher HbA1c than those ≥70 years of age (7.8 ± 1.5% vs 7.1 ± 0.9%). Discussion and conclusions. Demographic features of patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care are associated with glycemia control. GPs should take into consideration patients’ demographic characteristics, especially being a younger men, when planning treatment of type 2 diabetes. Read full text »

Effect of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction on Renal Transplantation Outcomes- A Paired Kidney Analysis

Background: Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is thought to be a rel-ative contraindication for kidney transplantation (KT). It is not clear how to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Material and Methods: A total of 21 kidney recipients transplanted between 2011 and 2013 who had LVEF <55% were ana-lysed in this retro- spective single-centre study. This group was compared with 21 patients with LVEF ≥ 55% who had received another kidney from the same de-ceased donor. The mean duration of follow-up was 32Ī10 months. Results: Con-cerning post – transplant characteristics there were no significant differences be-tween groups regarding rate of urinary tract infection after transplantation, level of serum creatinine at 12 months post KT, patient survival and subjective opinion of patient about their ability to physical effort at the end of follow up comparing to pre-transplant condition. In the group with reduced EF there were more incidences of delayed graft func- tion(28.8% vs 14.3%, p=0.29)and lower rate of graft survival( 85.7% vs 100%, p=0.23) but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Reduced EF should not exclude patients from consideration for KT, however greater caution is recommended.
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Heat Stroke. Review

The HS is an acquired disease that cla- ims many lives as they pass the hottest stages of each year, taking a record in each country and sometimes increased mortality figures for this entity associated with hot flashes, which are Frequent daily as a result of natural disasters, pollution, sudden climatic changes, etc.
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Is there a limit for expanding criteria of kidney donors? How far can we go?

Introduction: The lack of organs for transplantation has forced the transplant community to expand the pool of donors. Using expanded criteria donor (ECD) organs is one of the strategies. Although there are organs that do not fit into definition of ECD and remains controversial for transplantation. The aim of this paper is to report the criteria of discharging kidney from transplantation.
Material and methods: 704 patients received cadaveric renal transplants between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2015. In this time 181 kidneys were discharged from the transplantation – 125 kidneys (63 referred potential donors) were disqu- alified before organ procurement and 56 kidneys were rejected from transplantation during organ storage. Data on donors and preservation parameters were collected. Causes of organ refusal were analysed.
Results: The most common causes of kidney rejection from transplantation was poor donor kidney parameters with pro- bability of kidney irreversible injury (84 kidneys – 46,4%) and malignancy or strong suspicion of malignancy in donor body (44 organs – 24,3%). The next causes of kidneys disqualifications were unsatisfactory parameters during machine per- fusion (20 kidneys – 11%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in donor body with no recipients with negative crossmatch (7 kidneys – 3,9%). The less common causes of kidney rejection from transplantation were anatomical abnormalities (6 organs), nephrolithiasis (5 kidneys) and the others less frequent causes.
Conclusion: Careful kidney selection is recommended in cases of expanded criteria donor kidneys in order to diminish factors that can negatively affect graft function and survival.
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Music therapy – history of development (part 2)

The contemporary music therapy is a relatively new scientific and therapeutic field, which has its beginnings in ancient times. Records of music therapy treatment can be found both in the Holy Bible, as well as in old Roman sources, Greek mythology and the Far East writings. Since the introduction of the current term of the music therapy, the very concept of using music for therapeutic purposes has been constantly changing and evolving. Apart from the American and Swedish research, Polish scientist have also contributed to the deve- lopment of the method. The therapeutic effects of music have already been used in pedagogy, psychology, rehabilitation and many other areas. Music finds numerous applications in various branches of medicine due to its influence on the emotional sphere of human life and, in consequence, also on the physiological parameters of the human body. Music therapy can be divided into two categories: receptive and active one. Although in medicine mainly the former is preferred, it is an interesting alternative to the pharmacological treatment, which in itself encounters many limitations. The possibility of using music therapy in reducing the level of anxiety in patients is particularly important in dental practice. The high percentage of patients suffering from dentophobia and a profound impact of the increased anxiety level on the intensification of pain perception may provide sufficient incentive for introducing music therapy as a standard procedure.
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Meckel’s diverticulum resection as a part of Emergency General Surgery – single centre experience in years 2006-2014.

Background: An emergency surgery is a medical procedure that must be performed immediately to solve the patients’ health problem successfully. A delay of this medical procedure could result in a death or a permanent impairment of the health. An emergency surgery can be also defined as a surgery which is required to be performed in case of an acute threat to life of an organ, limb or tissue caused by an external trauma, acute disease process, acute exacerbation of a chronic disease process or complication of a surgical or other interventional procedure. Scott and co-workers [1] analysed 3.1 million of patients admitted to the hospital due to acute indication and they reported that emergency general surgery (EGS) represents 11% of admissions. EGS includes: cute appendicitis, peritonitis, bowel obstruction, acute mesenteric ischemia, gastrointestinal perforation or bleeding, acute cholecystitis, irreducible or incarcerated hernias, injuries after accidents e. g. organ fractures, intentional ingestion of foreign bodies or poisonous substances. Read full text »