Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract: Obesity is a state of the body, when the amount of energy delivered from food exceeds its consumption by the body. The concept of metabolic syndrome (MS) is determined by the coexistence of the clinical condition with connects risk factors for cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic character and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome consists of: increased waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, hyperinsulinemia, lipid disorders, including reduced HDL cholesterol, hypertension, proinflammatory and prothrombotic states. The etiology of metabolic syndrome can be related to two reasons: “adipose-centric” and “diabetes-centric”. The basis of all these metabolic changes is an increased fat mass, a fundamental element of the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Lack of physical activity, caloric and highly processed diet are not without significance for the development of MS. The paper discusses the influence of adipose tissue in the development of metabolic syndrome and the common denominator that links obesity to insulin resistance, which results in inflammation. In addition, the indicators reveal the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in Poland and in the world on the basis of the available literature. Additionally, the principles of dietary treatment and its importance in reducing the risk of cardio – vascular patients with metabolic syndrome are discussed. Data from studies conducted around the world confirm that we are dealing with an epidemic of the XXI century in the form of obesity and its complications, including metabolic syndrome.

Authors:

Anna Nadulska, Dominik Szwajgier, Grzegorz Opielak

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