PD-1 is a receptor which, through a variety of metabolic processes, leads to inactivation of T cells. In the therapy of the cancer, one of the promising new drugs is BMS-936 558, an antibody directed against PD-1 receptor. The effectiveness of the new therapy has been demonstrated in large randomized trials for renal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma. Currently, the drug is in the second phase of clinical trials (treatment of renal cell carcinoma). The obtained results are very promising, however the effect of the antibody must be evaluated in the further studies.
Since the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) to clinical practice it seemed that the problem of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease has been brought under control. Further years have produced modifications of particles of rhEPO and led to the synthesis of new medicines – erythropoiesis stimulating agents. These drugs are characterized by longer half-life and the stability of action. However, the results of recent clinical trials carry dangerous conclusions. Despite the improvement of morphological parameters, the reduction of mortality in these patients was not observed.
A group of the scientists from Switzerland, Germany and Israel have described the cases of three infants with similar symptoms. After genetic analysis of a samples harvested from the young patients, a mutation of α3 integrin was found. Read full text »
Kidneys – the filter of our body which is constantly working to ensure the proper composition of the blood by purifying it and removing waste products. They keep their efficiency for a long time even if their cells are very damaged and for that reason in case of pathology it is often too late for the treatment due to the fact that the changes are already very advanced. In these cases, drug treatment often fails and the renal replacement therapy is now limited to dialysis or transplantation. But even these solutions have their disadvantages. Read full text »
Organ transplantation and dialysis are the only effective ways of renal replacement therapy. Because of better quality and extended life expectancy of patients, transplantation is the preferred method of the end stage renal disease treatment. Many mediators are involved in rejection of the transplanted organ. The inflammatory process after organ transplantation is secondary to the ischemia and reperfusion. Cytokines and reactive oxygen species released during reperfusion can increase the expression of ICAM-1 adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelium. Cytokines stimulate also the leukocytes, which leads to increased expression of LFA-1 and VLA-4 on their surface. LFA-1 and VLA-4 molecules react with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, present on the endothelial cells. Activated due to adhesion leukocytes secrete proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species damaging the endothelium. Read full text »
The success of the transplantation depends on many factors. These include, inter alia, the appropriate selection of donor age, compliance within HLA, degree of sensitization – anti-leucocyte antibodies level, primary disease causing the need of kidney replacement therapy, state of the other organs and coexisting diseases. No less important are the other donor-dependent factors, time of the cold ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion injury and a number of immunological and genetic factors. Read full text »
Shuvo Roy, an associate professor in the UCSF School of Pharmacy who specializes in developing micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology for biomedical applications, and his colleagues have developed the artificial kidney. Read full text »