It is retreating of diet consumed from stomach to esophagus due to leakage or insufficiency of the lower esophageal sphincter. Risk factors: hiatal hernia, obesity, low voltage of lower esophageal sphincter, fatty foods, wine, spicy spices, sudden changes in body position, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The diagnosis for this disease: contrast X-ray, upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, pH-metry, manometry, omeprazole test . Untreated may lead to series of severe complications (gastrointestinal bleeding, adenocarcinoma).
a) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux) - a group of clinical symptoms and / or changes in the esophageal mucosa which are caused by recurrent episodes of getting the gastric contents into the esophagus (endoscopic should be confirmed);
b) NERD (non erosive reflux disease) - 24 h pH-metry shows regurgitation into the esophagus, but there are no visible symptoms in endoscopy.
Symptoms - esophageal symptoms (heartburn, retrosternal pain), associated with organ failure (esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma) and others (cough, hoarseness, asthma, dental caries, chronic laryngitis). Quality of life is reduced due to complaints.
Is several stages (depending on the severity of symptoms):
a) modification of lifestyle - avoiding stimulants (coffee, alcohol), reduction of body weight, regular consumption of meals;
b) pharmacotherapy - used proton pump inhibitors, antacids;
c) the operation - usually performed by laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.
Other types of reflux
a) bile reflux into the stomach (pyloric sphincter insufficiency); ulcers may occur;
b) vesico-ureteral reflux - here is the reverse flow of urine from the bladder and ureters to the kidneys, can lead to serious complications;
c) reflux of duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux - regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach and esophagus;
d) laryngo-pharyngeal reflux - stomach contents move to the larynx, pharynx, sinuses, oral cavity, nasopharynx, middle ear.
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Video is a lecture about usefulness of endoscopy in gastric reflux (GERD), Barret's esophagus and bariatric surgery. Presented by W. Scott Melvin, M.D.
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At present, GERD may be treated using the new method - the LINX device. This mini-invasive procedure assists in preventing a reflux using the force of magnetic beads, making the lower esophageal sphincter...
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A new technique, that brings the week lower esophageal sphincter back to it's normal functionality is called the LINX. Many of magnetic beads are connected by titanium links allowing the beads to open...
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In this video you can see a presentation on robotic and endoluminal management of gastroesophogeal reflux disease.
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