Macronodular Cirrhosi (1 of 2)
Larger nodules separated by wider scars and irregularly
distributed throughout the liver usually due to an infectious
agent such as viral hepatitis which does not diffuse
uniformly throughout the liver.Known causes of cirrhosis account for about 90-95% of
the cases. Most common etiologies include alcoholism,
autoimmune chronic hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis.
Less common causes include hemochromatosis, primary
biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, drug-induced liver
disease and chronic biliary obstruction. Other causes
include a1-antitrypsin deficiency, severe steatohepatitis in
the morbidly obese and Wilson's disease. The remaining
5-10% of patients with cirrhosis of the liver have no known
cause, a condition termed cryptogenic cirrhosis. Over the
last 10 years, the rate of cryptogenic cirrhosis has fallen
from 30% to current levels. The most likely cause for this
fall has been the availability of testing for hepatitis C.
The etiology of the cirrhosis usually cannot be
determined by the pathologic appearance of the liver
(with some notable exceptions, including
hemochromatosis and a1-antitrypsin deficiency).
Terms previously used such as portal cirrhosis or
postnecrotic cirrhosis have been replaced
by classifications that include three anatomic categories.
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